Caterall’s continuing preoccupation with inclusion and fairness is evident in her exchanges with Kingsley dur- ing a Committee session held on November, 21, 2002 – see pp. Presumably, the intention is to take proactive measures along the lines of targeted revision, which, it will be recalled, entails limited but focused enumera- tion-like actions carried out during the election period.
After all, it was generally under- stood that the only way that a permanent-list approach could be rendered sufficiently cost-effective, and thus have a chance of being considered seriously, was through the use of automation to handle the necessary large-scale data collection and data management tasks. But whereas Johnston’s analysis focused on the shortcomings of Canada’s party and electoral sys- tems, Black’s focuses on the significance of a new registration system that places a greater burden on voters to ensure that they are properly registered. Molnar allowed that only an estimated 30 percent of eligible youths had been registered when the lists were first generated (with a final regis- tered level of 55 to 60 percent).97 Kingsley himself had been quoted several times during the campaign as lamenting the fact that a huge majority of the esti- mated 400,000 Canadians who had turned 18 during the year had not registered in spite of Elections Canada’s outreach program; after all, all they had to do, he emphasized, was to sign a “confirmation of information” form and mail it back to the agency.98 To summarize, there is no disagreement that the perma- nent list came up short with regard to registering newly age-eligible voters.99. The disparity in turnout between being cor- rectly registered and not receiving a card amounts to 43.3 percent (75.3 vs. 32 percent) among the young- est group. Concerns were raised during the 2000 federal election about flaws in the new system that left would-be voters unregistered and uncertain about the necessary remedial measures. This added considerable momentum to the notion that change was desirable, and certainly the commission’s argu- ments and recommendations were often employed (though at times in a selective fashion) and became frequent points of departure and reference in the dis- course of those supporting a shift. To anticipate, it is maintained that the agency and Chief Electoral Officer Kingsley were pivotal in two ways. Please visit the Institute’s Web site for more information regarding this program or to download studies published since it was launched. In Canada, MPs are elected in a system known as first past the post. Altogether, nearly one-third (30.9 percent) of those who received a card with incorrect personal information, someone else’s card or no card at all did nothing to adjust the irregularity. Those who did voice a preference were divided about the principle that should prevail but, interestingly, more thought that inclusion (39.6 percent) as opposed to costs (29.7 percent) should be the defining princi- ple guiding the registration process.
I cannot understate this. She is represented by a governor general at the federal level and by 10 lieutenant governors, one per province.
Instead of taking place between 35 and 29 days before the election (as had been the case in Quebec for the 1993 election), the final April enu- meration was carried out between 53 and 47 days ahead of voting day. No 2 . On the second item, respondents were less like- ly to agree that there was “enough information.” Only 62.9 percent agreed that they had received sufficient information, while 30.4 percent disagreed (Mean = 6.6), suggesting that Elections Canada might have done more in this area. Electors vote for the candidate of their choice in their riding (also called an electoral district or constituency). If you do not receive a voter information card, call your local elections office to ensure that you are on the voters’ list. In the 1984 and 1988 elections, 71.5 and 72.2 percent of the eligible population voted, while in 1993 only 68 percent did so; the figure falls off sharply to 62.5 percent for the 1997 contest and drops again, to 59.2 percent, in 2000. Registration circumstances are slightly better for those with incomes between $20,000 and $39,999, at 73 and 15.4 percent, respectively. These results potentially provide the basis for some rethinking about the change in registration regimes, even for contemplating a return to enumeration in order to recapture its advantages in facilitating partici- pation. (p. 42). Canadians told us during the Electoral Reform Dialogue that they wanted us to remove barriers to voting. This confirms that your name is on the voters’ list and states when and where you vote. Report of a Round Table on Voter Registration (Cambridge, MA: Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1991), pp. They also list other factors, such as inadequate pay, as explanations for the short- fall in qualified enumerators. Some public office holders are also ineligible (senators, members of provincial or territorial legislatures, the chief and assistant chief electoral officers, returning officers and some judges). It now appears that the time is right to revisit the matter, and to ensure that the discus- sion and the policy choices reflect the ideal that registration regimes should primarily operate to uphold the key democratic principle of facilitating the participation of all citizens. Its 2000 General Election Post-event Overview notes that “a major- ity of candidates and political party representatives indi- cated a low degree of satisfaction” with the preliminary lists of voters generated by the National Register (p. 7) and that for their part returning officers reported having “to deal with widespread or major complaints about the preliminary lists of electors, indicating that the accuracy of the lists did not meet their expectations” (p. 7). While it acknowledges the shortage of qualified enumerators as a problem by listing the various discretionary measures that returning officers had to take in the 1988 election, at no point does it call the enumeration approach itself into question, and it cer- tainly makes no mention of replacing it. Ideally, party identification should have been included in the analysis, but it is not available in the survey. Canadians told us during the Electoral Reform Dialogue process that they wanted more done to improve civic literacy and to build knowledge about Canadian democracy. If these facts suggest that adequate coverage is still possible with enumeration, Elections Canada might, in rebuttal, point to the evidence of enumeration-like problems with the 2000 election in the context of its “targeted revision” efforts. Ironically enough, with the register firmly in place, the agency can perhaps now afford to pay more attention to participation-linked matters that origi- nally were given little regard. Generally speaking, do you strongly approve, somewhat approve, somewhat disapprove or strongly disapprove of this idea? Still, the context was entirely different, with no thought at all being given to the idea of a permanent list. A few years later, in April 1996, Kingsley would appear before the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs, welcomed by the chair to discuss “his favourite project, the registry of elections.”38 In October, Herb Gray stood in the House to move that Bill C-63 be referred to that same committee, com- menting that “This bill stems from the report of the Royal Commission on Electoral Reform and Party Financing, the Lortie Commission, and from the rec- ommendations made by the Chief Electoral Officer.”39. As it was, the reflection and discussion that surrounded registration reform tended to be nar- rowly focused. As will be discussed below, the report appar- ently served as a catalyst in moving Elections Canada to embrace technological change.
Today, the financing of political parties comes from two sources: individual contributions and public funding. And, again, every- thing that is known about the facilitation and inhibi- tion of participation would anticipate a drop in participation as these demands, modest as they may be, are placed on the prospective voter. To be clear, this is the amount that would be saved for each general election or referendum held subsequent to the recouping of costs associated with building and maintaining the register. Interestingly, there is some evidence suggesting that a wider debate, had it occurred, might have led to at least some reservations about a new regime.
At the same time, the analy- sis underscores Elections Canada’s role, including that of the chief electoral officer, as a key and proactive element in the process of change. At the same time, students were among those most likely to take the initiative to resolve their registration situation — 9.6 percent, compared to 3 percent for the sample as a whole – reinforcing the inference that the category com- prised exceptionally motivated young people. Moreover, most of the coefficients for the previous sets of vari- ables are attenuated with the incorporation of these attitudinal items, implying that they play a part in explaining how the demographic and registration vari- ables have an effect. Assessments of whether the information encouraged participation also form a pattern, with both receiving someone else’s card and not receiving a card appar- ently making a difference. Finally, judging from media reports, a small subset of those who received a card with incor- rect personal information may have been given wrong information about where to vote. By itself, that result reiterates the widely documented fact that Canada’s youngest adults (i.e., newer “generations”) vote at much lower levels. Only 50.0 percent of students found themselves in the ideal registration situation, while 31.2 percent received no card (specific data not shown).104. One also wonders if the attractiveness of a permanent list for Elections Canada, and for Kingsley personally, reflected a penchant for innova- tion within the new environment of commitment to technology — almost as an end in itself. Those provinces were Alberta, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario and Quebec.
Hamilton Spectator (November 15), The new system has created chaos in some con- stituencies, with angry voters objecting that they have received Elections Canada cards with wrong information, that they haven’t received cards or that they got more than one. A final line of reasoning involved challenging the idea that what some regarded as distinctive benefits of the enumeration system would not necessarily be lost in the move to a register. Since this measure captures both registration cover- age and voting behaviour, it is to be expected that it records the lowest percentages across all elections.
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